In this article we will know what are the impact of construction of dams. Dams usually serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or stop the flow of water to specific land areas. The oldest known dam is the Java Dam in Jordan, which dates back to 3,000 BC.
A dam is a barrier that prevents water from flowing through and helps to form a reservoir. Not only does this stop floods, but the stored water also helps in irrigation, hydropower, drinking water supply, shipping etc.
The Impact of Construction of Dams
1. Habitat fragmentation
By building a dam, the water of the river gets blocked. Due to which it acts as a barrier for the fish. Fish have a tendency to move along a river and with the flow of water, the effect of which is reflected in the entire water cycle of that water body.
2. Green house gases
Flooding in the habitat around dams destroys plants and other life which decomposes and releases large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because the river flow is blocked, water stagnates and there is a lack of oxygen at the bottom of the reservoir.
3. Flooding and destruction of surrounding habitat
Blocked rivers form a reservoir against the flow of the dam, whose water spills over into the surrounding area. As a result, flood conditions arise and the ecosystem and habitats present there get destroyed. Such floods either destroy plants, wildlife and many other organisms including humans.
4. Sediment gets deposited behind the dam
Since a dammed river does not flow freely, other types of natural sediment or sediment accumulate behind the dam. Due to which new river banks, river deltas, alluvial fins, different types of rivers, many types of lakes and coastal banks are formed.
5. Negative impact on local fish population
Dams are generally not environmentally friendly for local fish species, so they cannot survive due to the construction of dams. As a result, the local population of fish is disappearing. Many factors affect the survival of local fish species.