According to the data presented by the Renke Commission (2008), there are about 1,500 nomadic tribes and semi-nomadic tribes and 198 denotified tribes in India, comprising about 150 million Indians. In this article we will know what is Nomadic (Ghumantu) tribes in India and what is the difference between Vimukta, Nomadic and Semi-nomadic tribes.
What is Nomadic Tribes in India
Nomadic is a tribe in India, they do not have any special place and they roam for their living, hence they are called nomadic (Ghumantu). It is a socially backward tribe. These tribes are still marginalized socially and economically and many of these tribes are deprived of even their basic human rights. The most important issue is about his identity.
The members of these communities do not have basic facilities like drinking water, shelter and sanitation etc. Besides, they are deprived of facilities like health care and education. They are still harassed by the local administration and police because of the prevailing misconceptions and criminal beliefs about the denotified, nomadic and semi-nomadic communities.
Since the people of these communities are often on the go, they do not have any permanent place of residence. As a result they lack social security umbrella and they are not even issued ration cards, aadhar cards etc.
The caste classification among these communities is not very clear, in some states these communities are included in the Scheduled Castes, while in some other states they are included under Other Backward Classes (OBC). However, most of the people from these communities do not have caste certificate and hence are not able to avail the benefits of government welfare programmes.
Distinguish between denotified, nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes
Vimukt tribes are those that were notified under the Criminal Tribes Act enacted during the British rule, under which the entire population was declared criminal by birth. In the year 1952 this act was repealed and the communities were emancipated.
Nomadic tribes maintain constant geographic mobility, while semi-nomadic tribes are those who move from place to place but return to their fixed habitat once a year mainly for commercial reasons.
The distinction between nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes does not take into account specific ethnic or socio-economic parameters, but is reflected in their mobility.